What are Automatic sprinkler systems: Types and working principles

Automatic sprinkler systems are a crucial part of many big buildings and public facilities. These sprinkler systems are designed to put out the fire automatically in case of fire. In this article, we will discuss about different types of automatic sprinkler systems, their working principles and components of sprinkler system.

Automatic sprinkler systems are designed to work without human intervention. They are divided into two categories: fixed systems and portable systems. Fixed systems are permanently installed in the building. Portable sprinklers can be moved from one place to another as per the requirement.

Sprinklers are generally mounted high on the ceiling or suspended from the roof structure for maximum effectiveness. The position is important for two reasons: first, it ensures that water flows over the most combustible materials (walls, partitions, ceilings) and spreads quickly over a large area; second, it ensures that people cannot reach the sprinklers; they are out of reach of both children and adults who may try to tamper with them.

Do you have one at your home? Do you have any idea how and when it should be put to use? In this article we will look into different types of automatic sprinkler systems and their working principles, as well as the company to reach out to if you need to install one in your home.

How automatic sprinkler systems work?

Sprinkler systems are designed to operate individually and in response to heat from a fire. Each sprinkler head contains a glass bulb with solder around its circumference that melts when exposed to heat from the fire, breaking away from the system piping and allowing water to flow out of the sprinkler head.

Automatic sprinklers as part of a fixed fire protection system require only a fraction of the flow rates required by most fixed fire protection systems. The design and operation are simple enough that you can easily maintain them yourself.

When a fire occurs in an area protected by a sprinkler system, one or more sprinklers operate to control the fire. This is because sprinklers are individually heat activated and designed to operate at a temperature lower than that at which the fire would normally occur. As a result, they activate sequentially as the fire progresses, only the sprinklers in the immediate area of the fire activate.

Individual automatic sprinklers respond to heat by opening and discharging water directly over the seat of the fire. The heat causes the solder around the glass bulb to melt and break loose. Once the glass breaks open, water is discharged.

Unlike the fire sprinkler systems, which are on a water distribution system and open with a series of activated heads, automatic sprinklers are designed to activate individually.

Sprinklers are also designed to activate at a specific temperature. The temperature of activation is normally around 135 degrees Fahrenheit (57 degrees Celsius), depending on the type. The operating principle of automatic sprinklers is fairly simple and based on heat-sensitive components that operate independently.

Each sprinkler is responsible for controlling its own discharge; however, if more than one unit activates from heat input from the same fire, they all will discharge water into their immediate area. As an example of how this works, consider an office building with multiple offices in a row where each office space has its own individual sprinkler head that operates independently of others in the area.

When one office catches fire and activates, only that particular head will discharge water into that specific area because it is designed to activate in response only to heat input from its immediate vicinity.

Automatic sprinklers require only a fraction of the flow rates required by most fixed fire protection systems (i.e., standpipe hose lines).

You may find that automatic sprinkler systems require only a fraction of the flow rates required by most fixed fire protection systems (i.e., standpipe hose lines). The reason for this decreased requirement is that sprinklers are designed to control a fire, not fight it.

This means that sprinklers are intended to contain and isolate a fire, while the building occupants escape. The low flow rates achieved with automatic sprinkler systems often allow them to share water supplies with other building services such as domestic water or cooling towers.

Sprinklers do not provide the same level of control of the spread of a fire as does a standpipe hose line being operated by trained firefighters on scene. However, for many buildings where occupant evacuation is of paramount concern and an adequate water supply is available, automatic sprinklers provide an acceptable alternative to more conventional fixed fire protection systems such as standpipes.

Components of sprinkler system

Automatic sprinkler systems are a great idea for your home. They keep your house safe from fire and protect your belongings and loved ones from the dangers of a fire in your home. There are different kinds of sprinkler systems, but most of them use similar components that include:

  • Water supply lines
  • Sprinkler heads
  • Flexible water pipes
  • Valves
  • Main water shut off valve
  • Pressure regulator
  • Fire alarm system

Types of Automatic Sprinkler Systems:

  • Wet Pipe System – the most common type of sprinkler system is the wet pipe system. In this arrangement, the pipes are completely filled with water and under pressure. When a fire occurs, it causes heat to build up in that area and its temperature will rise above 68°C (155°F). This will cause the temperature-sensitive glass bulb to break/rupture, which allows water to flow through the pipe onto the fire. The water will help extinguish or contain the fire until firefighters arrive at the scene.
  • Dry Pipe System – this type of sprinkler system is installed in areas where freezing may occur such as parking garages or unheated warehouses during winter months when temperatures drop below 32 degrees Fahrenheit (-0 degrees Celsius).

Instead of being filled with water like a wet pipe system, these pipes are pressurized by air and have very little standing water between each sprinkler head. The air pressure holds back all that liquid until any one of them breaks open due to increased heat from a fire; then gravity will take over quickly releasing every last ounce into action immediately thereafter!

  • Double pipe system -The double pipe system is one of the most popular sprinkler system types because of its reliability and low maintenance. It is comprised of two pipes, one above ground and another below. The pipe that is above ground is called the supply main, while the underground pipe is called the lateral. The water in the supply main moves through the sprinkler heads, then down into the lateral line. This causes the water to spray out from a group of sprinklers.

There are two reasons why this type of sprinkler system isn’t a good idea for your yard or garden. First, it has been known to clog up with debris from time to time, so it can be hard to maintain if you don’t know what you’re doing. Second, it is more likely to freeze than other types of sprinkler systems because it does not have an insulating layer around it like some other systems do. If you want a simple system that isn’t prone to freezing, then this type isn’t right for you.

  • Deluge system (the most common type) – The deluge system is the most common type of sprinkler system. It uses a valve to send water from the main supply line to the sprinklers. When the fire alarm is triggered, the valve will release a constant flow of water onto the fire until it is extinguished. The deluge system is found in most commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings. However, it is also commonly installed in smaller buildings as well.
  • Preaction system – Preaction systems are the most common sprinkler systems found in modern buildings and homes. These systems include a water supply that must be activated by a fire alarm before a sprinkler is set off. This type of system allows for greater protection because the fire alarm will sound before the sprinklers activate, warning any persons inside. No water is wasted when this system is used, making it a better option than other types. Because of how quickly these sprinkler systems work, they can minimize damage done by a fire, allowing for a quicker clean up and less hours lost by business owners who may rent or own their space.

Advantages of Automatic sprinkler system

Automatic sprinkler systems are the most ingenious and efficient method of fire protection for modern buildings. The water mist spray from sprinklers can reach an area of up to 500 m², so with one system you can protect a large building, saving significant sums on construction costs.

In addition, automatic sprinkler systems are not affected by smoke or bad weather conditions and have a long life. All in all, automatic sprinkler systems are the most effective method of fire protection for buildings of any size.

Disadvantages of Automatic sprinkler system

Automatic sprinkler systems are a great way to protect your property and keep everyone safe, but they’re not without their disadvantages. The biggest issue is that you can’t just install one and forget about it. It’s impossible to tell when something will go wrong with your automatic sprinkler system, so you’ll always need to make sure that the system is working properly on a regular basis.

 This means having the sprinklers inspected regularly by a trusted and reputable company like chrelect, that will take up the responsibility of always checking all the parts of the system to make sure they are in good shape and won’t fail at a bad time, and making sure the water is flowing properly throughout the system.

There are also some downsides of automatic sprinklers that have to do with what happens when they do go off. An unexpected release of water like this can cause quite a bit of damage—if your automatic sprinkler system goes off, it will drench all of the floors in every room throughout the entire house, including carpets and wood floors (which can be ruined by water damage). A single failure could ruin an entire room—not just from soaking wet carpet, but also from expensive repairs since you’ll have to tear out everything around the damaged area to make sure it doesn’t become an even bigger problem later on.


Automatic sprinkler systems are the life-saving devices that provide protection from fire hazards. They are use to protect areas where fire is likely to occur—such as homes, schools, hospitals and hotels—and they may be installed either in the ceiling or on the walls of a building. There are several types of automatic sprinkler systems which can be classified according to their application, type of detection system, hydraulic system, and water supply.

To help you mount one in your home, employ the services of chrelect, a mechanical and electrical company that offer such services as installing, maintenance and repairs of automatic sprinkler systems.